CIFOR–ICRAF publishes over 750 publications every year on agroforestry, forests and climate change, landscape restoration, rights, forest policy and much more – in multiple languages.

CIFOR–ICRAF addresses local challenges and opportunities while providing solutions to global problems for forests, landscapes, people and the planet.

We deliver actionable evidence and solutions to transform how land is used and how food is produced: conserving and restoring ecosystems, responding to the global climate, malnutrition, biodiversity and desertification crises. In short, improving people’s lives.

A triple-win payment for ecosystem services in the Asian highlands: Co-investment in water resource

Export citation

Mountain ecosystems cover about one-quarter of the Earth’s surface and support a diverse range of living organisms: humans, animals and plants. Moreover, mountains provide essential ecosystem services (water, biodiversity, climate modulation, and carbon storage) as well as useful products (food, medicine, non-timber forest products, and building materials). Mountains also serve as the world’s water towers. It is estimated that about two-thirds of the fresh water that sustains humanity originates from mountain and upland areas. More than half the world’s population depends directly or indirectly on mountain resources and services.
    Publication year



    Xu, J.; Su, Y.; Salim, M.A.




    ecosystem services, incentive


    Nepal, Pakistan

Related publications