CIFOR–ICRAF publishes over 750 publications every year on agroforestry, forests and climate change, landscape restoration, rights, forest policy and much more – in multiple languages.

CIFOR–ICRAF addresses local challenges and opportunities while providing solutions to global problems for forests, landscapes, people and the planet.

We deliver actionable evidence and solutions to transform how land is used and how food is produced: conserving and restoring ecosystems, responding to the global climate, malnutrition, biodiversity and desertification crises. In short, improving people’s lives.

Common but differentiated responsibility for restoration and avoided degradation of commons: who pays for basic rights?

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Commons, in the original meaning of land that is managed at community scale, have been privatized or taken over by the state as part of ‘development’ in many parts of the world in various stages of history. Part of the rationale for this was that communities weren’t strong enough institutionally to control the private interest of individuals, leading to overexploitation and resource degradation. Privatization was seen as a means to make overexploitation uneconomical and facilitate investment in land productivity and restoration. Elsewhere, the state took over claiming to be better stewards in securing national interests. “The real tragedy of the commons is that people believe collective action cannot effectively defend common interests”

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