CIFOR–ICRAF publishes over 750 publications every year on agroforestry, forests and climate change, landscape restoration, rights, forest policy and much more – in multiple languages.

CIFOR–ICRAF addresses local challenges and opportunities while providing solutions to global problems for forests, landscapes, people and the planet.

We deliver actionable evidence and solutions to transform how land is used and how food is produced: conserving and restoring ecosystems, responding to the global climate, malnutrition, biodiversity and desertification crises. In short, improving people’s lives.

Oil palm agroforestry: fostering socially inclusive and sustainable production in Brazil

Export citation

In the myriad national and subnational Latin American contexts, oil palm expansion has led to varied and often controversial outcomes (Castiblanco, Etter and Ramirez 2015; Richard and Aide 2017). Evidence is emerging that oil palm adoption can have positive impacts on smallholder livelihoods (e.g., Feintrenie, Chong and Levang 2010), but impacts depend on the relationships between farmers and processors. Key aspects include types of supply arrangement, such as nucleus estates with smallholder outgrowers versus independent farmers, and technical aspects, e.g., prescribed technological packages, minimum area required, minimum supply volumes and technical assistance.

Related publications