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Progress and persistent challenges of inclusive business models in cocoa and oil palm sectors in Ghana and Peru

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Inclusive business models (IBM) connect smallholders and other low-income people with buyers, processors and traders in agricultural and forest product value chains. Value chain actors engage with each other through diverse institutional arrangements, including international (e.g. UN Global Compact, zero deforestation) and industry standards (e.g. Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil, Cocoa and Forests Initiative), certifications (e.g. fair trade, organic), and contract farming.

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