CIFOR–ICRAF publishes over 750 publications every year on agroforestry, forests and climate change, landscape restoration, rights, forest policy and much more – in multiple languages.

CIFOR–ICRAF addresses local challenges and opportunities while providing solutions to global problems for forests, landscapes, people and the planet.

We deliver actionable evidence and solutions to transform how land is used and how food is produced: conserving and restoring ecosystems, responding to the global climate, malnutrition, biodiversity and desertification crises. In short, improving people’s lives.

Field-Level Evidences of Climate Change and Coping Strategies of Smallholder Farmers in Molawin-Dampalit Sub-Watershed, Makiling Forest Reserve, Philippines

Export citation

This article confirms that climate change is indeed a real phenomenon as observed and experienced by smallholder farmers in the Molawin-Dampalit Sub-Watershed. Using semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions, the smallholder farmers articulated their own indications of climate change. These include increasing temperature, stronger and more frequent typhoons, excessive rainfall, drought, early rainy season, and delayed dry season. Among the effects of climate change on their agricultural production include stunted growth of crops, aborted fruiting of trees, incidence of pests and diseases, and growth of unknown weeds. These have led to increase in the use and dosage of farm inputs, particularly pesticides and fertilizers; decline in crop yield; and ultimately, decline in farm income. To cope with these impacts, the farmers employed strategies such as replanting, use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers to control pests and improve crop growth, pruning, watering and diversion of water source, changing crops, and harvesting their crops earlier to minimize crop loss. Considering the vulnerability of smallholder farmers, the results suggest the need to enhance their adaptive capacities for climate change impacts using a holistic approach via human capital development, improvement of physical capital, and building their social capital.

Related publications