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Land use affects the distribution of soil inorganic nitrogen in smallholder production systems in Kenya

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We hypothesized that the integration of trees and shrubs in agricultural landscapes can reduce NO3– leaching and increase utilization of subsoil N. A field survey was conducted on 14 farms on acid soils in the subhumid highlands of Kenya, where there is little use of fertilizers, to determine the effect of vegetation types (VT) on soil NH4+ and NO3– to 4m depth. The VT included maize (Zea mays) with poor growth and good growth, Markhamia lutea trees scattered in maize, natural weed fallow, banana (Musa spp.), hedgerow, and eucalyptus woodlot. The effect of VT on NH4+ was small (

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