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Testing a Conceptual Model of Soil Emissions of Nitrous and Nitric Oxides: Using two functions based on soil nitrogen availability and soil water content, the hole-in-the-pipe model characterizes a large fraction of the observed variation of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide emissions from soils

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In this article, we briefly review the disciplinary researchon soil emissions of N2O and NO. We describe a mechani s ti c a lly based con ceptual model—the “h o l e - i n - t h e -pipe” (HIP) model (Firestone and Davidson 1989)—thatintegrates the results of these disciplinary studies and thatrelates emissions of both nitrogen oxides to common soilprocesses. We then test the model predictions, using datafrom our recent studies in Costa Rica (Veldkamp et al.1999), Brazil (Verchot et al.1999),and Puerto Rico (Erickson,etal. in press) and additional data from the literaturefor forest ecosystems throughout the world.

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