CIFOR–ICRAF publishes over 750 publications every year on agroforestry, forests and climate change, landscape restoration, rights, forest policy and much more – in multiple languages.

CIFOR–ICRAF addresses local challenges and opportunities while providing solutions to global problems for forests, landscapes, people and the planet.

We deliver actionable evidence and solutions to transform how land is used and how food is produced: conserving and restoring ecosystems, responding to the global climate, malnutrition, biodiversity and desertification crises. In short, improving people’s lives.

Java: less forest, more trees outside forest, persistent poverty

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Within Indonesia and Southeast Asia in general, the island of Java experienced the earliest significant forest exploitation which was dated back from the late seventeenth century, and now Java is the most densely populated island with the lowest forest fraction among Indonesian islands. Despite of the important roles of tree cover in Java in providing environment services to 60% of the population of Indonesia and in supporting peoples’ livelihoods, the dynamics of forest and tree cover in Java remains largely unknown. Being in the most advanced stage of forest transition, Java should be able to offer some lessons learnt to the outer islands and other countries in the region.

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