CIFOR–ICRAF publishes over 750 publications every year on agroforestry, forests and climate change, landscape restoration, rights, forest policy and much more – in multiple languages.

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We deliver actionable evidence and solutions to transform how land is used and how food is produced: conserving and restoring ecosystems, responding to the global climate, malnutrition, biodiversity and desertification crises. In short, improving people’s lives.

Relational values within landscape restoration: a review

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Instrumental values have mostly informed the assessment of viability and decision-making in landscape restoration literature — especially cost–benefit analysis. Yet, relational and intrinsic values have also been suggested as important values to enable holistic approaches to land restoration. We review articles that include relational values in landscape restoration to assess differences in values across social and geographic contexts and their implications in motivating further restoration. While some values are held constant across different communities, we find differences between values held by developing versus developed countries, rural versus urban communities, and between local stakeholders and others. Developed countries and urban communities hold relational values, while developing countries and rural communities emphasize instrumental values. Similarly, local stakeholders hold instrumental values, while other stakeholders hold relational values. The review also highlights the role of culture in restoration and why nonutilitarian values ought to be captured to understand the holistic value of restoration.

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