CIFOR–ICRAF publishes over 750 publications every year on agroforestry, forests and climate change, landscape restoration, rights, forest policy and much more – in multiple languages.

CIFOR–ICRAF addresses local challenges and opportunities while providing solutions to global problems for forests, landscapes, people and the planet.

We deliver actionable evidence and solutions to transform how land is used and how food is produced: conserving and restoring ecosystems, responding to the global climate, malnutrition, biodiversity and desertification crises. In short, improving people’s lives.

Meat from the Wild: Extractive Uses of Wildlife and Alternatives for Sustainability

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Hunting and gathering remained the main mode of subsistence of humanity for hundreds of thousands of years, beginning some 1.8 million years ago, and until the Neolithic Revolution (some 10,000 years ago), when agriculture gradually spread through human societies (Marlowe 2005). Hunter-gatherer societies obtained their food directly from "natural" ecosystems, by hunting wild animals and collecting wild plants (Richerson et al. 1996). Early agrarian societies started planting desired crops on suitable lands, competing with wildlife for space and resources. As agrarian societies evolved, techniques for planting and harvesting became technologically more advanced and more efficient (Richerson et al. 1996). Innovations thus allowed the human population to grow and to colonize nearly every terrestrial ecosystem type on Earth.

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