CIFOR–ICRAF publishes over 750 publications every year on agroforestry, forests and climate change, landscape restoration, rights, forest policy and much more – in multiple languages.

CIFOR–ICRAF addresses local challenges and opportunities while providing solutions to global problems for forests, landscapes, people and the planet.

We deliver actionable evidence and solutions to transform how land is used and how food is produced: conserving and restoring ecosystems, responding to the global climate, malnutrition, biodiversity and desertification crises. In short, improving people’s lives.

Lessons learned for improving policies affecting forest conservation and climate change adaptation in Uganda's water tower communities

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Key points

  • Biodiversity conservation and livelihood policies are poorly integrated, undermining the implementation of both.
  • National strategies for CC adaptation and mitigation follow traditional ministerial silos, risking the replication of problems associated with isolated portfolio approaches.
  • Successful ecosystem-based adaptation on Mount Elgon requires greater cooperation between ministries, decentralized (local) governments, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and local communities to:
    • Integrate conservation (CC mitigation) and development (CC adaptation) objectives and activities.
    • Build coherence in spatial planning to achieve biodiversity conservation, watershed protection, disaster mitigation and agricultural intensification across landscapes.
  • Decentralized governments have the potential to serve as coordinating bodies for jurisdictional EbA strategies and lead development of subnational CC initiatives.


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    Russell, A.; Banana, A.Y.; Ongugo, P.




    conservation, biodiversity, climate change, adaptation, mitigation



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