CIFOR–ICRAF publishes over 750 publications every year on agroforestry, forests and climate change, landscape restoration, rights, forest policy and much more – in multiple languages.

CIFOR–ICRAF addresses local challenges and opportunities while providing solutions to global problems for forests, landscapes, people and the planet.

We deliver actionable evidence and solutions to transform how land is used and how food is produced: conserving and restoring ecosystems, responding to the global climate, malnutrition, biodiversity and desertification crises. In short, improving people’s lives.

Oromia, Ethiopia: Low-emission rural development (LED-R) at a glance

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  • Largest Ethiopian region in area, forest cover, & population
  • Contains ~50% of Ethiopia's forests, including over 1.2 million ha of protected areas, wildlife reserves, & community-managed forests
  • 66% of agricultural landholders participated in community watershed management activities (2010-2015), such as constructing terraces & planting trees to optimize production with minimal environmental disturbance
  • Since late 1990s, transfers of medium- & large-scale lands to private companies for agriculture, real estate, & infrastructure have reduced farmers' access -> landbased conflicts & discontent towards federal & regional governments
  • Beginning in 2015, widespread protests by Oromian youths against the federal & regional governments' development strategies -> states of emergencies & change in Ethiopia's leadership (2018)

    Publication year



    Atmadja, S.; Peteru, S.




    deforestation, livelihoods, food security, sustainable development, policy, climate change



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