CIFOR–ICRAF publishes over 750 publications every year on agroforestry, forests and climate change, landscape restoration, rights, forest policy and much more – in multiple languages.

CIFOR–ICRAF addresses local challenges and opportunities while providing solutions to global problems for forests, landscapes, people and the planet.

We deliver actionable evidence and solutions to transform how land is used and how food is produced: conserving and restoring ecosystems, responding to the global climate, malnutrition, biodiversity and desertification crises. In short, improving people’s lives.

Adaptation in the Anthropocene

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Key messages

  • Ecosystems provide people with services that enable adaptation to climate change, which we refer to here as 'adaptation services'.
  • But adaptation services do not flow automatically: some input from people is needed.
  • We identified five types of mechanisms that support the production of adaptation services.
  • These mechanisms are related to: (i) multifunctional and traditional ecosystem management, (ii) proactive management of transformed ecosystems, (iii) use of novel adaptation services, (iv) collective ecosystem management, and (v) appreciating, using and valuing adaptation services.
  • Understanding these mechanisms can lead to an improved flow of adaptation services and more options for livelihoods and well-being under climate change.
  • This InfoBrief summarizes the findings of a paper published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Series B (Lavorel et al. 2020).


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