CIFOR–ICRAF publishes over 750 publications every year on agroforestry, forests and climate change, landscape restoration, rights, forest policy and much more – in multiple languages.

CIFOR–ICRAF addresses local challenges and opportunities while providing solutions to global problems for forests, landscapes, people and the planet.

We deliver actionable evidence and solutions to transform how land is used and how food is produced: conserving and restoring ecosystems, responding to the global climate, malnutrition, biodiversity and desertification crises. In short, improving people’s lives.

Maranhão, Brazil

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  • Comprised of 3 ecosystems: Cerrado (64%), Amazon (35%) & Caatinga (1%); 80% of the state is within the Legal Amazon (~240,000 km2)
  • Differing biome-specific environmental policies pose challenges for implementing statewide LED-R initiatives
  • 70% of remaining forests located in indigenous peoples' (IP) territories & protected reserves; secondary vegetation (27% of deforested area) is unprotected, despite significant restoration potential
  • Part of MATOPIBA region: agricultural frontier of the Cerrado spanning Maranhão, Tocantins, Piaui & Bahia states
  • 20% of state's soybean crop area certified by Round Table for Responsible Soy (RTRS); ~65% of soy expansion on lands converted from native vegetation.
  • Land concentration & monoculture in late 20th century contributed to socio-economic disparity & underdevelopment.
  • Free Babaçu Law gives rights to babaçu harvesters (mostly women) for free access & community use of babaçu, even on private land, & prohibits cutting & burning palm trees to protect babaçu harvesting & promote sustainable agricultural development.


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