CIFOR–ICRAF publishes over 750 publications every year on agroforestry, forests and climate change, landscape restoration, rights, forest policy and much more – in multiple languages.

CIFOR–ICRAF addresses local challenges and opportunities while providing solutions to global problems for forests, landscapes, people and the planet.

We deliver actionable evidence and solutions to transform how land is used and how food is produced: conserving and restoring ecosystems, responding to the global climate, malnutrition, biodiversity and desertification crises. In short, improving people’s lives.

Ecosystem services and social equity: Who controls, who benefits and who loses?

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Key messages

  • Stakeholders have different roles in the co-production of ecosystem services, e.g. they can be direct or indirect managers or beneficiaries.
  • There are mismatches between those who manage and those who depend on or benefit from ecosystem services.
  • Different forms of inequities are tied to these roles and can threaten the resilience of socio-ecological systems.
  • Power asymmetries influence stakeholders’ roles in relation to ecosystem services, including their participation in ecosystem services governance.
  • Insights into roles, power and inequities can be useful for designing participatory governance mechanisms.


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