CIFOR–ICRAF publishes over 750 publications every year on agroforestry, forests and climate change, landscape restoration, rights, forest policy and much more – in multiple languages.

CIFOR–ICRAF addresses local challenges and opportunities while providing solutions to global problems for forests, landscapes, people and the planet.

We deliver actionable evidence and solutions to transform how land is used and how food is produced: conserving and restoring ecosystems, responding to the global climate, malnutrition, biodiversity and desertification crises. In short, improving people’s lives.

Ensuring Zero Agricultural Land Expansion into High-Carbon Ecosystems

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Relative to agricultural systems, high-carbon ecosystems – such as forests, peatlands, and mangroves – store large amounts of carbon in relatively small areas. Agricultural expansion often comes at the expense of high-carbon ecosystems, contributing to climate change. The food system is connected to these challenges. Ensuring no further agricultural expansion occurs in high-carbon ecosystems is a substantial climate change mitigation opportunity. The estimated costs of avoiding deforestation range from US$1.1 to US$395 billion per year, depending on growth scenarios and carbon prices; this is a bargain compared to the leverage these systems have on climate change and its social costs. Individuals, indigenous people, policies, institutions, and investments are all agents of change and will have to work together to avoid further land conversion.

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