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CIFOR–ICRAF publishes over 750 publications every year on agroforestry, forests and climate change, landscape restoration, rights, forest policy and much more – in multiple languages.

CIFOR–ICRAF addresses local challenges and opportunities while providing solutions to global problems for forests, landscapes, people and the planet.

We deliver actionable evidence and solutions to transform how land is used and how food is produced: conserving and restoring ecosystems, responding to the global climate, malnutrition, biodiversity and desertification crises. In short, improving people’s lives.

Farming secondary forests in Indonesia

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Estimates of the area of swidden fallow secondary forest in Indonesia are inaccurate partly because swidden agricultural practices giving rise to the secondary forest are heterogeneous. Throughout Indonesia swidden agriculture is evolving into more intensive land use. A mixed secondary forest tree crop management appears to be the first stage towards a tree crop based production in Sumatra and Kalimantan. This changes the value of the forest/tree component of swidden agriculture or the systems it evolves into. The trade offs between productivity environmental functions biodiversity and sequestrated carbon are only qualitatively understood. Some of the proposed large scale estate crop production programmes in Indonesia disregard the benefits (a diverse agriculture forest landscape better environmental functions higher biodiversity) that development along these endogenous trends may provide.

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