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Biological Water Quality Indicators in Upland Catchments: Family Biotic Index as an Assessment Tool

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Forest conversion to agriculture such as coffee garden and rice field rapidly occured in the upper Way Besai watershed Sumberjaya Lampung Indonesia which invo lved activities such as land clearing soil tillage planting weeding and applying fertilizers and pest icides by farmers. Those activities affect the water quality along t he stream and river through sedimentation and accumulation of nutrients and pesticide residues.

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