CIFOR–ICRAF publishes over 750 publications every year on agroforestry, forests and climate change, landscape restoration, rights, forest policy and much more – in multiple languages.

CIFOR–ICRAF addresses local challenges and opportunities while providing solutions to global problems for forests, landscapes, people and the planet.

We deliver actionable evidence and solutions to transform how land is used and how food is produced: conserving and restoring ecosystems, responding to the global climate, malnutrition, biodiversity and desertification crises. In short, improving people’s lives.

Roots as part of the Carbon and Nitrogen input and output of three types of cropping systems on an Ultisol in North Lampung

Export citation

Yields of annual food crops typically decline with time after conversion of forest (fallows) in the humid tropics along with a declining soil organic matter content. Application of organic matter particularly in combination with inorganic fertilizers may maintain a high crop production. However the availability of organic materials such as (green) manure or crop residues is limited while fertilizer use is often not within the financial possibilities of small farmers. Understanding the dynamics of C and N in such systems may help to understand the options for soil management.

Related publications