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CIFOR–ICRAF publishes over 750 publications every year on agroforestry, forests and climate change, landscape restoration, rights, forest policy and much more – in multiple languages.

CIFOR–ICRAF addresses local challenges and opportunities while providing solutions to global problems for forests, landscapes, people and the planet.

We deliver actionable evidence and solutions to transform how land is used and how food is produced: conserving and restoring ecosystems, responding to the global climate, malnutrition, biodiversity and desertification crises. In short, improving people’s lives.

Tree-soil-crop interactions in sequential and simultaneous agroforestry systems

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The paper reviews concepts and methods for studying tree-soil-crop interactions. It discusses an empirical approach to separate positive from negative interactions and obtain a process-level understanding of the components. Descrives framework for the synthesis of component knowledge. It indicates that the final outcome of an agroforestry system for a specific farmer depends both on the nature (inherent plant qualities) and the nature (effects of the abiotic and biotic environment farmer management) of the system.

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