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Seeds as Potential Sources of Phenolic Compounds and Minerals for the Indian Population

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Seeds are major sources of nutrients and bioactive compounds for human beings. In this work, the chemical composition and physicochemical properties of 155 Indian seeds (belonging to 49 families) are reported. Moisture and ash were measured with reference protocols from AOAC; total polyphenols and flavonoids were measured with spectrophotometric methods after extraction with organic solvents, and mineral elements were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry. Total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and mineral contents (Al, Ba, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Rb, S, Sr, Ti, V and Zn) were found to vary in the ranges 182–5000, 110–4465 and 687–7904 mg/100 g (DW), respectively. Noticeably, polyphenol contents higher than 2750 mg/100 g were observed in 18 seeds. In addition, mineral contents >5000 mg/100 g were detected in the seeds from Cuminum cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare, Commiphora wightii, Parkia javanica, Putranjiva roxburghii, Santalum album and Strychnos potatorum. Botanical and taxonomical variations in the proximate characteristics of the examined seeds are also discussed.

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