CIFOR–ICRAF publishes over 750 publications every year on agroforestry, forests and climate change, landscape restoration, rights, forest policy and much more – in multiple languages.

CIFOR–ICRAF addresses local challenges and opportunities while providing solutions to global problems for forests, landscapes, people and the planet.

We deliver actionable evidence and solutions to transform how land is used and how food is produced: conserving and restoring ecosystems, responding to the global climate, malnutrition, biodiversity and desertification crises. In short, improving people’s lives.

Willingness to participate in Payment for Mangrove Environmental Services: Maritime sector and shipping industry stakeholder perspectives

Export citation

Key messages

  • Although the shipping industry plays an important role in economic development globally and in Vietnam, its activities also affect the environment.
  • The Government of Vietnam has recently introduced many new policies promoting economic development and environmental protection through sustainable development of the shipping industry, including the Green Port Program and a Payment for mangrove environmental services mechanism.
  • Port authorities and shipping companies appreciate the roles mangroves play in: reducing greenhouse gas emissions/absorbing CO₂, NOx, SOx, PM particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs); reducing sedimentation and expenditure on dredging; providing clean water; and reducing wave impacts and coastal erosion. Consequently, these companies are willing to participate in a payment for mangrove environmental services mechanism. In fact, many foreign shipping enterprises are actively engaged in replanting and protecting mangroves.
  • Though some shipping industry companies are willing to pay for mangrove protection and development, four key factors determine their long-term commitment to and compliance with such a policy. These factors are: transparency and accountability regarding revenues and expenditure; fairness in applying payments for mangrove environmental services to all user groups; disclosure of detailed plans for mangrove maintenance and reestablishment; and policy development based on comprehensive and scientific cost-benefit analyses.
  • Foreign and domestic shipping companies differ in terms of their willingness to pay for and ability to apply a payment for mangrove environmental services mechanism. Further studies are needed to analyze these differences and determine optimum measures.


Altmetric score:
Dimensions Citation Count:

Related publications