CIFOR–ICRAF publishes over 750 publications every year on agroforestry, forests and climate change, landscape restoration, rights, forest policy and much more – in multiple languages.

CIFOR–ICRAF addresses local challenges and opportunities while providing solutions to global problems for forests, landscapes, people and the planet.

We deliver actionable evidence and solutions to transform how land is used and how food is produced: conserving and restoring ecosystems, responding to the global climate, malnutrition, biodiversity and desertification crises. In short, improving people’s lives.

Archetype analysis of forest policies and measures: towards a new typology

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Decision makers have access to a large and growing toolbox of policies and measures that can, in theory, contribute to reducing deforestation and forest degradation. Middle-range theories can be formulated to summarize the conditions under which forest policies and measures are effective in halting deforestation and forest degradation. Such a diagnostics approach can, in turn, provide useful information to help decision makers avoid the trap of one-size-fits-all policy solutions and implement well-informed, context-specific policy solutions. A key element in this approach is the construction of a typology of forest policies and measures. Here we develop and apply an archetype analysis of forest policy and measures as a systematic, bottom-up and replicable way to build such a typology. Our empirical approach is based on three key elements: a broad universe of cases of forest policies and measures, a generic theory of change (ToC) of forest policies and measures, and a list of attributes characterizing this theory of change. Overall, we identify and characterize 10 broad types of forest policies. On the hand, these encompass historical solutions aimed at changing producers’ behaviours such as command-and-control policies and economic incentives. On the other, they encompass emerging demand-side policies and policies triggering psychological mechanisms such as social belongingness.

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