CIFOR–ICRAF publishes over 750 publications every year on agroforestry, forests and climate change, landscape restoration, rights, forest policy and much more – in multiple languages.

CIFOR–ICRAF addresses local challenges and opportunities while providing solutions to global problems for forests, landscapes, people and the planet.

We deliver actionable evidence and solutions to transform how land is used and how food is produced: conserving and restoring ecosystems, responding to the global climate, malnutrition, biodiversity and desertification crises. In short, improving people’s lives.

Ecosystem services - local benefits, global impacts

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Ecosystem services constitute the base for humans' well-being. Benefits are ranging from improved local livelihoods to global benefits provided by forests' climate regulation services. However, there are internal and external drivers of change like new consumption patterns and conflicting interests in specific services, demographical development, or climate change and extreme events. In this context, ecosystems like forests need to be managed in a sustainable and equitable way to ensure a provision of ecosystem for the benefits of the local population and for mitigating impacts for the global community by equitable and efficient sharing of benefits - and of costs.
    Publication year



    Brockhaus, M.; Botoni, E.




    ecosystem services, livelihoods, climate change, ecology

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