CIFOR–ICRAF publishes over 750 publications every year on agroforestry, forests and climate change, landscape restoration, rights, forest policy and much more – in multiple languages.

CIFOR–ICRAF addresses local challenges and opportunities while providing solutions to global problems for forests, landscapes, people and the planet.

We deliver actionable evidence and solutions to transform how land is used and how food is produced: conserving and restoring ecosystems, responding to the global climate, malnutrition, biodiversity and desertification crises. In short, improving people’s lives.

The Land Degradation Surveillance Framework

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The Land Degradation Surveillance Framework (LDSF) was developed in response for the need for systematic landscape-level assessment of soil and ecosystem health. The methodology is designed to provide a biophysical baseline at landscape level, and a monitoring and evaluation framework for assessing processes of land degradation and the effectiveness of rehabilitation measures (recovery) over time. The framework is built around a hierarchical field survey and sampling protocol using sites that are 100 square km (10 x 10 km), each containing 160-1000m2 sampling plots. The LDSF has been implemented in over 40 countries across the tropics.
    Publication year



    World Agroforestry




    land degradation, soil quality, landscape conservation

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