CIFOR–ICRAF publishes over 750 publications every year on agroforestry, forests and climate change, landscape restoration, rights, forest policy and much more – in multiple languages.

CIFOR–ICRAF addresses local challenges and opportunities while providing solutions to global problems for forests, landscapes, people and the planet.

We deliver actionable evidence and solutions to transform how land is used and how food is produced: conserving and restoring ecosystems, responding to the global climate, malnutrition, biodiversity and desertification crises. In short, improving people’s lives.

Ex Ante Impacts of Gaharu (Aquilaria Spp; Thymelaeaceae) Biotechnology: From Depleted Forest Resource to Profitable Agroforest Component?

Export citation

For the past 2000 years (at least) international tra de in gaharu (‘agarwood’ or ‘eagle-wood’) derived form the natural forests of Southeast Asia has been a major source of income for people living in the forest edge. The gaharu is the source of aromatic oil used in the Middle East. Gaharu is formed inside the stem of medium-sized trees of a number of genera in response to wounding and fungal infection, often at the points where branches break of. Many tr ees are, after felling, found not to have any appreciable oil content, so the search for and harvest of gaharu is surrounded by mystique and ritual. In fact there are several species and genera of trees that can produce gaharu. CITES (the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna) has enlisted the aromatics producing tree species Aquilaria malaccensis (in November 1994) and Gyrinops spp . and Gonystylus spp (in October 2004) on the CITES Appendix II list in response to the threat of over-harvesting. Indonesia has an allowable quotum for export but has, in recent years, not been able to reach this amount due to increasing scarcity of the ‘non timber forest product’. The trees as such are not difficult to propagate and grow, but the formation of the value-giving resin remained a matter of chance – until recently. A relatively simple form of biotechnology has been developed for wounding the trees with a mechanical drill and injecting a concoction of fungi into these holes. Although the gaharu formed is no t yet of the highest quality and the matching of fungi * tree species (ecotype) * location is still und er testing. The economic prospects of producing a product with a price of 100’s of $ per kg (in stead of per m 3 as is the price of wood) is mind blowing. Aquilaria trees are shade tolerant and can grow well as part of an agroforestry mixed canopy system. However, the new biotechnology is likely to saturate the market and lead to a crash in prices.
    Publication year



    Soeharto B; Budidarsono S; Van Noordwijk M




    agroforestry, biotechnology, forest resources, maize, models, organic matter, thymelaeaceae



Related publications