CIFOR–ICRAF publishes over 750 publications every year on agroforestry, forests and climate change, landscape restoration, rights, forest policy and much more – in multiple languages.

CIFOR–ICRAF addresses local challenges and opportunities while providing solutions to global problems for forests, landscapes, people and the planet.

We deliver actionable evidence and solutions to transform how land is used and how food is produced: conserving and restoring ecosystems, responding to the global climate, malnutrition, biodiversity and desertification crises. In short, improving people’s lives.

Accelerating subnational deforestation and forest degradation reduction efforts (REDD+): need for recognition of instrumental and relational value interactions

Export citation

In globally coordinated efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+), perspectives on instrumental (goal-oriented, ecological–economic) and relational (harmony-oriented, social–ecological) values of nature vary between, but matter to both local and global actors and stakeholders. The (sub)-national motivation to engage in REDD+ programs evolved over time. We reviewed literature on the underlying values and moral roots in subnational REDD+ implementation in two Southeast Asian countries with different political histories: Vietnam and Indonesia. Vietnam tried to use the preexisting Payments for Forest Environmental Services program for REDD+, incentivizing community-based forest management. Indonesia asked all provinces to clarify emission-reduction plans in green growth strategies, before engaging with international REDD+ finance. Maintaining strong national control over forests was a key motivation for initial REDD+ adoption, but further development of the programs in both countries rebalances efficiency and fairness in instrumental and relational decision-making modes, encompassing various dimensions of morality beyond financial gains.

Altmetric score:
Dimensions Citation Count:

    Publication year



    Do, T.H.; van Noordwijk, M.




    ecosystem services, climate change, mitigation, value systems, finance, literature reviews


    Indonesia, Viet Nam

Related publications