CIFOR–ICRAF publishes over 750 publications every year on agroforestry, forests and climate change, landscape restoration, rights, forest policy and much more – in multiple languages.

CIFOR–ICRAF addresses local challenges and opportunities while providing solutions to global problems for forests, landscapes, people and the planet.

We deliver actionable evidence and solutions to transform how land is used and how food is produced: conserving and restoring ecosystems, responding to the global climate, malnutrition, biodiversity and desertification crises. In short, improving people’s lives.

The trade-offs in multi-purpose land use

Export citation

Ecosystem health is directly addressed in several SDGs, while it is an implicit requirement in others. With an expanding population and developing economies, the pressure on land for food production has been relentless and has often led to the loss of other essential ecosystem services (ESSs). Unsustainable pressure on natural resources threatens the very ecosystem services on which the global food system depends (Howe et al., 2014). Thus, conserving natural resources is fundamental to sustainable production in the long term, especially given the vulnerability of agriculture and fisheries to climate change (Berry et al., 2006).

Related publications