CIFOR–ICRAF publishes over 750 publications every year on agroforestry, forests and climate change, landscape restoration, rights, forest policy and much more – in multiple languages.

CIFOR–ICRAF addresses local challenges and opportunities while providing solutions to global problems for forests, landscapes, people and the planet.

We deliver actionable evidence and solutions to transform how land is used and how food is produced: conserving and restoring ecosystems, responding to the global climate, malnutrition, biodiversity and desertification crises. In short, improving people’s lives.

Independent oil palm smallholders are not homogeneous groups

Export citation

Forest, palm oil plantations and other types of land cover account for 51.8%, 21.5% and 26.7% of Kotawaringin Barat district land, respectively. Palm oil plantations comprise those managed by companies (18.1%) and smallholders (3.4%). Typologies are based on sampled plantation areas of 2,902 ha taken from 7% of the district’s total smallholder plantation areas. This amounts to 42,770 ha. There are 349 surveyed plots (defined as a compact oil palm plantation area owned by a smallholder) involving 308 households.
    Publication year



    Andrianto, A.; Komarudin, H.




    oil palms, small scale farming, typology, plantations



Related publications