CIFOR–ICRAF publishes over 750 publications every year on agroforestry, forests and climate change, landscape restoration, rights, forest policy and much more – in multiple languages.

CIFOR–ICRAF addresses local challenges and opportunities while providing solutions to global problems for forests, landscapes, people and the planet.

We deliver actionable evidence and solutions to transform how land is used and how food is produced: conserving and restoring ecosystems, responding to the global climate, malnutrition, biodiversity and desertification crises. In short, improving people’s lives.

Drivers of tree presence and densities: the case of cocoa agroforestry systems in the Soubre region of Republic of Côte d'Ivoire

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Cocoa yields in Côte d’Ivoire are low and falling each year in part as a result of full-sun cropping systems. Thus interest is now high in establishing sustainable cocoa agroforests through the re-introduction of shade trees. This article uses data collected from a sample of 400 cocoa farmers in the Soubré region of Côte d’Ivoire to rank the top alternative tree species of interest to farmers and to analyze the determinants of their presence and density in cocoa farms. Results show that the most significant determinants are: social network effects ethnic group and geographic zone. Also poorer farmers and those in more isolated villages were more likely to associate their cocoa with crops popular for household consumption like oil palm. We thus suggest that future agroforestry programs should tailor the tree species promoted based on location ethnic group market access and income level and that extension programs should be designed to take advantage of networking effects.

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