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Tigers, orang utans, rubber gardens and conservation in Batang Toru, North Sumatra

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Batang Toru landscape has had a long history of human use with a gradient of land use intensity that ranged from ricefields and homegardens via agroforests (kebun) of various types to forest where the intensity of use decreases with distance from the settlement •This village-forest gradient has so far been compatible with conservation of globally important biodiversity including orang utan and tiger that have a specific protection status •Customary rules of ownership of the kebuns specify the local rights to use plant develop and harvest forest products in various stages of domestication including kemenyan durian and gaharu.

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