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Loksado grassland reforestation, Indonesia

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Loksado protection forest is located at Loksado subdistrict Hulu Sungai Selatan district South Kalimanatan province. Grasslands cover a wide area of this forest land. The grasslands developed as a result of traditional upland rice cultivation practices of the indigenous Dayak tribes. The Dayak community in the Loksado area open a patch of secondary forest or shrubland to cultivate upland rice for 1–2 years with zero agricultural input (fertilizers herbicides or insecticides). The land is then fallowed and traditionally the fallow lasts for 20 or more years. Due to population and other modern pressures however the fallow cycle in most areas has been reduced to 5–15 years. As the fallow period shortens soil fertility on these sites is unable to recover. This is particularly problematic in steep areas where the soil is inherently less fertile and prone to erosion. The Dayak community sees the natural regeneration of woody perennials on fallowed land as a sign that soil fertility has recovered enough to support a few rotations of rice. Most steep sites have become so degraded that woody perennials no longer regenerate regardless of the fallow period. Those steep sites are dominated by grasses that have become a climax landcover because of their tolerance of annual wildfires.

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